Following on from our New Year blog about the benefits of exercise, we’re focusing here on three very popular sports where we commonly treat injuries – running, cycling and swimming.

In each sport there are optimal biomechanics that will help lead to improved performance and injury prevention.

Below we list the most typical injuries and the most common causes:


Optimal biomechanics

  • Body maintained sagittal direction
  • Minimal vertical displacement of the centre of mass
  • Minimal frontal & transverse plane deflection


  • Stress fractures
  • Compartment syndrome (shin splints)
  • Chondromalacia patellae
  • Iliotibial band syndrome & trochanteric bursitis
  • Gluteus medius tendinopathy
  • Achilles tendinopathy
  • Plantar fasciitis


  • Training frequency/duration & equipment
  • Anatomical – foot type, leg length, excessive pronation,
    alignment lower extremity
  • Lack cross training & core training


Optimal Biomechanics

  • Piston function
  • Reduced valgus angulation
  • Low Q angle
  • Reduced medial & lateral rocking knees


  • Patellofemoral
  • Meniscus
  • Iliotibial band syndrome
  • Trochanteric bursitis
  • Low back pain
  • Hamstring & achilles tendinopathy
  • Carpal tunnel
  • Cervical spine


  • Bike set up
  • Training volume
  • Spinal stability – core strength / stamina
  • Malalignment  lower extremity
  • Muscle imbalance


Optimal Biomechanics

  • Equal body rotation & balance
  • Early catch
  • Early exit
  • Straight through pull – arm stroke


  • Rotator cuff tendinopathy
  • Impingement  syndrome
  • Joint laxity A/P
  • Cervical spine


  • Muscle imbalance
  • Scapular kinematics
  • Poor spinal core stability
  • Thoracic spine stiffness
  • Myriad of stroke flaws

Best ways to prevent injuries

  • Cross train endurance & strength in all planes of motion
  • Maintain good posture and flexibility
  • Have an appropriate balance of exercise & rest days
  • Have intermittent assessment & preventative treatment
  • Instruction & coaching & appropriate equipment

If you would like to find out more about treatment for sports injuries our sports injury clinic may well be able to help.